In Israel, in 1985, a severe outbreak among mountain gazelle (Gazella
gazella gazella) resulted in the death of around 50% of a herd of
3000 animals in a game reserve. Death was attributed to a combination
of cardiac failure and dehydration caused by the inability of the animals
to drink due to lingual muscular changes. Typical and severe oral lesions
were observed in many animals, involving extensive, and in some cases,
necrotic lesions of the dorsum of the tongue. Separation of the hooves
was not uncommon. Some animals lost their horns, leaving a bleeding core.